Visualizing GDP - An Inside Look At The Q4 Second Estimate

Net Exports were positive in Q4.

Government Consumption Expenditures came in as a positive contributor.

As for the role of Personal Consumption Expenditures (PCE) in GDP and how it has increased over time, here is a snapshot of the PCE-to-GDP ratio since the inception of quarterly GDP in 1947. To one decimal place, the latest ratio of 69.8% is at its record high.

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PCE Percent of GDP

Let's close with a look at the inverse behavior of three of the GPDI components during recessions. PCE and especially GC generally increase as a percent of GDP whereas GPDI declines. Note the three with different vertical axes (Personal Consumption Expenditures on the left, Gross Private Domestic Investment and Government Consumption on the right) to highlight the frequent inverse correlations.

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Three Components of GDP

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