Other Enjoyments, Of A Purer, More Lasting, And More Exquisite Nature

The commodities that substantially contribute to the subsistence of the human species form a very short catalogue: they demand from us but a slender portion of industry. If these only were produced, and sufficiently produced, the species of man would be continued. If the labor necessarily required to produce them were equitably divided among the poor, and, still more, if it were equitably divided among all, each man’s share of labor would be light, and his portion of leisure would be ample. There was a time when this leisure would have been of small comparative value: it is to be hoped that the time will come, when it will be applied to the most important purposes. Those hours which are not required for the production of the necessaries of life, may be devoted to the cultivation of the understanding, the enlarging our stock of knowledge, the refining our taste, and thus opening to us new and more exquisite sources of enjoyment. It is not necessary that all our hours of leisure should be dedicated to intellectual pursuits; it is probable that the well-being of man would be best promoted by the production of some superfluities and luxuries, though certainly not of such as an ill-imagined and exclusive vanity now teaches to admire; but there is no reason in the system of the universe or the nature of man, why any individual should be deprived of the means of intellectual cultivation.

Incidentally, Godwin’s daughter, Mary Shelley, quoted the first five sentences of that passage in her notes to Percy Shelley’s poem, Queen Mab. The passage is consistent with Godwin’s argument in his Enquiry Concerning Political Justice, in which, as William Stafford mentioned, “[t]he Calvinist doctrine of the calling can be discerned just below the surface…” But it wasn’t Calvin’s doctrine, it was Godwin’s updating and reformulation of the doctrine. In Godwin’s version, work and leisure were to have equal status, a point Godwin made explicit in his Thoughts on Man

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